East Meets West in a Fairy Tale: Prague, Czech Republic

Last Updated: March 2024
Half of my heart is in Praha-ha-ha-ha-ha. Sorry, I had to. Prague (or "Praha" in Czech) is difficult to convey in words. Picture a medieval lord or a bishop of some sort. Prague is a blend of Central Europe, but truly one of a kind. It really does look like something from a fairy tale: the imposing hilltop cathedrals, pointed towers, secret gardens, medieval statues, and people doing wedding photo shoots everywhere. Prague is peaceful and gives off the same feelings of contentment as lying on a tropical beach, but with a classic Czech beer or some goulash.

History buffs rejoice! The history of Prague and the entirety of Czechia (former known as Czech Republic) is not cut and dry. Ownership of the Bohemian region changed multiple times since its founding in the 1100s. At one point it was part of the Holy Roman Empire. Then the Austro-Hungarian Empire took over. Then it was Czechoslovakia. Now it is Czech Republic or Czechia. Long story short: a trip to Prague brings influential figures and eras of central European history. Even if you don't want to fill up on such detailed and layered timelines, the enchanting fantasy of the Prague Castle and all of Prague's iconic locations will intrigue and charm anyone. I'd definitely film a Disney movie in Prague, or a Nicholas Sparks movie, if that's what you're into.

Prague Castle

Prague is the center of the Bohemian region of Czechia. This region was once the Kingdom of Bohemia. Rulers of the land at this monarchical part of the Czech backstory contribute to the extensive Czech royal history that even included the powerful Habsburg dynasty in the 1700s. These centuries of history manifest themselves in the Prague Castle (Pražský hrad). The Prague Castle is the largest ancient castle in Europe. The entire complex spans nearly 70,000 square meters! However, some may find the Prague Castle to be less lavish than the stereotypical castles with tall, pointed towers and golden gates, but I couldn't love it more. 

In the center of the castle's complex is the St. Vitus Cathedral, an icon of Prague's skyline and seen from the Charles Bridge to Vysehrad on the other side of town. This cathedral held coronations for kings and queens and served as a burial place for bishops. Wenceslas I, Duke of Bohemia founded a rotunda here in 925. The Christmas carol "Good King Wenceslas" is about Wenceslas I. Later on, Holy Roman Emperor (basically king) Charles IV commissioned a Gothic-style cathedral at this location in 1344. St. George's Basilica is a small building near the central cathedral. Prince Vratislav founded it in the 900s.

St. Vitus Cathedral

St. George's Basilica

The Prague Castle features the Old Royal Palace that began as a royal residence in the 9th century. Charles IV enlarged it 4 centuries later. Further reconstructions made the palace look closer to how it appears today, including the addition of Vladislav Hall. Royal proceedings took place here, and the royal throne is located here as well. Next to these sections of the castle is the location of the Defenestration, wherein Czech governors were thrown out of the window, sparking the beginning of the Thirty Years' War that affected multiple European lands and lasted for, you guessed it, 30 years.

Other things found during a visit to the Prague Castle include medieval armor, the torture chamber, the castle's prison tower complete with metal caging, and incredible views of the entire city. Find these after you leave the castle complex and head to the Golden Lane, a unique street of tiny houses which used to belong to groundskeepers and other local workers.

Views from the Prague Castle Complex

Details inside the small houses of Golden Lane

Charles Bridge, Old Town Square, and Malá Strana

Easily the biggest attraction of Prague is the Charles Bridge (Karlův Most). Construction began in 1357 during the reign of Charles IV. It is lined with medieval statues (look closely for some dystopian details) and book-ended by the unique bridge towers that make Prague so recognizable. Tourists can climb the stairs to the top of either tower to get close to the gorgeous spires atop of so many historic buildings all over the city, like the bright mint green dome of the St. Francis of Assisi Church (Kostel svatého Františka z Assisi) just steps from the bridge. Go inside this church too. The bridge joins Malá Strana with Old Town Square, putting it right in the middle of some of the most beautiful parts of Prague. Old Town Square (Staroměstské náměstí) includes the tall Clock Tower with the famous Prague Astronomical Clock (Pražský orloj) from the 1400s and the Church of Our Lady before Tyn (Chrám Matky Boží před Týnem). The inside of this church is stunning with bright gold accents, but only open during limited hours. Check for the nearby entrance signs.

Malá Strana (Lesser Town) is the term for the area of Prague that goes from the Charles Bridge to the entire castle complex. Get lost by wandering on foot through this place that is different from any other European city, save for the smaller towns of Czechia. There are fresh gingerbread stores year round, artists, and my favorite spot on the river bank by the Malostranská metro and tram stop. It encompasses a historic "post card" part of Prague with winding narrow streets, pastel buildings, the Franz Kafka Museum (Muzeum Franze Kafky), and gardens between historic courtyards. It was in Malá Strana that I came across a pleasant surprise through an archway while on my way to Queen Anne's Summer Palace (Letohrádek královny Anny). It is called Vojanovy Sady, which dates back to the 1200s. There were people doing wedding photo shoots, petals all around, and ducks in the pond. If you've ever read "The Secret Garden," this must be it. You may even spot a few gentle peacocks. Oh, and if you come across a place selling hot chocolate, definitely try it. It tastes like actual melted chocolate in a cup. Scroll past these photos for more.

Charles Bridge heading toward Malá Strana

Statues on Charles Bridge

Steps off of Charles Bridge toward Old Town Square
with St. Francis of Assisi Church on the left

View from Charles Bridge tower

Old Town Square with Church of Our Lady Before Tyn

My favorite spot near Malostranská metro and tram stop

Malá Strana

Malá Strana

Nerudova Street, Malá Strana

Highly recommend this antique store next to Nerudova 211 Hotel

Queen Anne's Summer Palace

Vojanovy Sady


An area of great historical significance is on the hilltop at what is now called Vyšehrad. "Hrad" means "castle" in Czech. This area of Prague began as a fort in the 10th century (hence the stone walls), during the reign of the the first King of Bohemia, Vratislaus. It basically became somewhat of a separate domain. Today, Vyšehrad is dominated by the stark and beautiful inside and out Saints Peter and Paul Basilica (Bazilika svatého Petra a Pavla) and its neighboring statue-filled cemetery, massive entrance structures archways, and openings to look out over the Vltava River. Its park areas have statues, and views over the whole city.

views from Vyšehrad hilltop

Saints Peter and Paul Basilica and park

Cemetery next to the basilica

Significant Locations for 20th Century History

Fast forward a few centuries and the territory that makes up the present-day Czechia once again rose to historical significance, whether the Czechs wanted to do so or not. During World War II, Germany took control of what was then called Czechoslovakia. Hitler even stayed overnight in the Prague Castle. As if World War II wasn't enough, the Soviet Union's communist Iron Curtain fell over Czechoslovakia. The country remained communist until the Velvet Revolution in 1989. During that 40-year span, the Soviets attempted to crush uprisings against their communist leadership in the country. One in 1968 referred to as the Prague Spring caused around 170 deaths. Then on November 17th, 1989, a student-led peaceful protest occurred in Prague. However, the protest ended with police beatings. There is a monument for the student protesters near the National Theater (Národní Divadlo). Get good views of the Charles Bridge and Prague Castle from outside of this theater, especially at night.

Monument to the student protesters

National Theater

View from around the National Theater

Many anticommunist protests (including the Prague Spring) occurred at Wenceslas Square (Václavské náměstí) which is named after the patron saint of Prague, St. Wenceslas and feels like the Champs-Élysées in Paris. The square features a statue of St. Wenceslas in front of the huge National Museum (Národní Muzeum) that looks like a palace. Most of the square looks a bit modern now, given the outlet mall-type stores, but it doesn't take long to at least stop by. In 1918, Wenceslas Square was also the site of the Czechoslovakian independence declaration after years of rule by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
St. Wenceslas statue and National Museum

The National Museum isn't the only museum in Prague. Not far from Old Town Square, the Powder Tower (Prašná Brána), and quite a few theaters ("divadlo" in Czech) is the Museum of Communism (Muzeum Komunismu). It showcases the era that the country spent under the influence of the Soviet Union. Another look into Europe's Soviet era is at the KGB Museum in Malá Strana. Its artifacts are from the owner's personal collection. Seeing the city today, it's hard to believe that the country was once communist at all, save for the Žižkov Television Tower (Žižkovská televizní věž) and the awkward grey theater juxtaposed next to the gigantic (and much prettier) National Theater by the river.

Side Note: Czechia's WWII and Soviet history associates the Czechs with Eastern Europe. This brings negative connotations as countries in Eastern Europe thought of as less developed and not as economically strong as Western European countries. Therefore, Czechs do not like to be referred to as "Eastern Europe." Czechia is one of the most prosperous of the former Soviet satellite countries and has done well to shake off its past communist associations. Prague's gorgeous old buildings likened to those of its Eastern neighbors and Slavic roots now mix with so-called "western" (though western is an outdated ambiguous term) influences like EU and UN memberships and countless English speakers.

Powder Tower

The Jewish Quarter

Jews have lived in Czechia for centuries. The Jewish Quarter (Židovská čtvrť) just north of Old Town Square features the Old Jewish Cemetery (Starý Židovský Hřbitov), a haunting, yet fascinating cemetery wherein centuries-old tombstones are clustered together among trees and even a cat or two. To learn more about Prague's Jewish history, go inside the Klausen Synagogue (Klausová Synagoga) and Jewish Museum in Prague (Židovské muzeum v Praze). Both are right next to the cemetery.

Perhaps the most moving part of the Jewish Quarter is the Pinkas Synagogue (Pinkasova Synagoga). From top to bottom and side to side, the walls of this synagogue are covered with the names of Czech and Slovak Holocaust victims in alphabetical order. Among them, you'll see the last name "Korbel." The members of this family inscribed on the walls are the grandparents of Prague-born Madeline Albright, the United States' first female Secretary of State.

Other Notable Churches

Further away from the river is Charles Square (Karlovo Náměstí). My favorite church in Prague is at this square: the Church of St. Ignatius (Kostel svatého Ignáce z Loyoly). Its mint green spires make it hard to miss. In fact, Prague's nickname is the City of 100 spires. Though today, Czechia has a high percentage of non-religious people, Prague is the home of some impressive churches from past centuries. Other churches with unique exteriors include the Basilica of St. James,  Kostel sv. Bartolomeje, and the Church of Saint Henry and Saint Cunigunde (Kostel svatého Jindřicha a svaté Kunhuty).
Karlovo Náměstí

Church of St. Ignatius

Church of St. Ignatius

Church of Saint Henry and Saint Cunigunde

More Attractions

  • Tucked away near the Certovka canal that goes under the Mala Strana side of the Charles Bridge is the John Lennon Wall (Lennonova zeď). This is a graffiti wall inspired by John Lennon. Quite a few young tourists stop here for creative photos and to listen to street performers.
Certovka Canal

John Lennon Wall (graffiti often changes)
  • The Stahov Monastery (Strahovský klášter) located in the same hilltop part of the city as the Prague Castle is a highlight of the city due to its chic surroundings, wide views and historical Strahov Library (Strahovská knihovna).

Why Prague?

Don't get me wrong, Rome is still my favorite city. Rome is a place to visit as many times as possible in a lifetime. But Prague is a place at which to really stick around for as long as possible. It is comfortable, calm, and magical. It is feisty, vibrant, and even a little creepy (ahem...torture chamber in the castle and imposing statues on the Charles Bridge). Czechia is a classic fairy tale and a Brothers Grimm fairy tale all in one place. If I can have two favorite cities, Prague would be my other favorite.

When to Visit

The weather is cold until mid to late March. But in April, the tulip trees and public parks are in full bloom all over the city. Paddle boats are available for rent from the Vltava River's two islands in the spring. During the last week of October, lots of leaves will become a gorgeous bright yellow, especially on Vyšehrad and around the Prague Castle. However, as with most European cities, visiting during Christmas is truly an entertaining step into another time. If you can't visit at Christmas, Easter is popular in Czechia as well. There are Easter markets with fresh local food at all of the city's hot spots in March and April.

Navigation Tips

  • Prague has an excellent Metro (subway) system and trams. There are red, yellow, and green lines for the Prague metro. Metros are the easiest to understand in all of the cities that I have visited thus far, so if you are not totally comfortable with public transportation, stick to the metro. However, using metros instead of above ground transportation obviously takes away from the sightseeing of the city in between your home base and the important landmarks. That being said, tram line 22 will take you to nearly all of the most beautiful and monumental locations in Prague no matter which direction you go on it and is above ground for any hidden gems in between.
  • Buses are helpful to go to the main bus station and the airport. Buses to the airport connect with a stop on the yellow and green metro lines. No need to pay for a taxi at the airport!
  • There are two ways to get to the Prague Castle. One is stop Malostranské Náměstí on Tram Line 22 near the beautiful Nerudova street. From the end of Nerudova, a sharp right turn leads up the sloped path to the gates and the side of the complex with the Starbucks (which offers amazing free views of the entire city).
Follow this path on the left to the Prague Castle
  • The other way to the castle is a few stops further on Tram 22 through a tree-lined path that could easily be a scene in a Hallmark movie. Both routes to the castle are just as magical as the other.
  • There are two different ways to get to the attractions of the Vyšehrad part of the city as well. One faces the Vltava and involves a long but rewarding walk up a staircase carved into the side of the hill. Get off on the Výtoň tram stop and look for are labeled signs and arrows as you head straight south. The other way is by metro. This is the long way, but it involves a walk through a unique residential area and through some of the old city/fortress entrances along cobblestone paths. For either route, put on your walking shoes.
view from stairs leading to Vyšehrad
  • Like other large cities in Europe, Prague has labeled signs to point its visitors toward the major attractions. This is especially helpful because some of Prague's iconic places are clustered together.

Miscellaneous Tips

  • There are different ticket options when visiting the Prague Castle, called circuits. Each one includes more or less parts of the castle and its supplementary exhibits. Choose the option that meets your own interests the most.
  • The Charles Bridge gets BUSY. However, visiting at sunrise makes for a crowd-free chance to get some amazing photos of the sun coming up over the city. Get there a few minutes before the actual sunrise for the best moments. I am far from a morning person, but maybe I wouldn't be if I lived closer to the Charles Bridge.
  • There are fascinating WWII walking tours in Prague. The highest ranking Nazi official killed during the war was done in Prague by members of the Czech resistance group. Follow this link to book the tour which includes this incredible story brought to the big screen in the film "Anthropoid" starring Cillian Murphy. Highly highly recommend this tour.